Da Bush Babees feat. Mos Def - The Love Song (1996)

Da Bush Babees ft. Mos Def - The Love Song

We had each other to weave our parts around. My voice was just another sound to be repeated.

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Comp Neurol This article has been corrected. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Despite its anatomical prominence, the function of primate pulvinar is poorly understood. A few electrophysiological studies in simian primates have investigated the functional organization of pulvinar by examining visuotopic maps.

Multiple visuotopic maps have been found in all studied simians, with differences in organization reported between New and Old World simians. Given that prosimians are considered closer to the common ancestors of New and Old World primates, we investigated the visuotopic organization of pulvinar in the prosimian bush baby Otolemur garnettii.

Single electrode extracellular recording was used to find the retinotopic maps in the lateral PL and inferior PI pulvinar. Based on recordings across cases a 3D model of the map was constructed. From sections stained for Nissl bodies, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, calbindin or cytochrome oxidase, we identified three PI chemoarchitectonic subdivisions, lateral central PIcl , medial central PIcm and medial PIm inferior pulvinar. Both maps represent the central vision at the posterior end of the border between the maps, the upper visual field in the lateral half and the lower visual field in the medial half.

They share many features with the maps reported in the pulvinar of simians, including location in pulvinar and the representation of the upper-lower and central-peripheral visual field axes.

The second order representation in the lateral map and a laminar organization are likely features specific to Old World simians. Many functional roles have been proposed for these visual pulvinar subdivisions , including visual salience Petersen et al. The number and organization of retinotopic maps in the visual pulvinar are of great interest because of pulvinar's wide connections with visual cortical areas and its various proposed functions.

The visual pulvinar has been electrophysiologically surveyed in the Old World simian macaque Bender, and the New World simian cebus Gattass et al.

Two retinotopic maps were identified in both species. However, the positions and visual field representations of these maps were reported to differ. The relationship between these observed pulvinar maps in macaque and cebus monkeys remains unclear: The retinotopic organization of pulvinar, however, has not been electrophysiologically examined in any prosimian species.

In this study we used bush babies Otolemur garnettii as a representative species of prosimians. We electrophysiologically examined the retinotopy of its visual pulvinar and constructed 3D models of the maps from data across cases. We also compared the resulting functional maps with the chemoarchitecture of each pulvinar subdivision.

Materials and Methods Animal Preparation Six bush babies Otolemur garnettii of both sexes weighing 0. Some of these animals were used in multi-day terminal recording sessions while others underwent a series of 1-day survival recording sessions before a final 1-day terminal recording session. Urethane was given intra-peritoneally, induced with a dose of 1.

Once the animal was deeply anesthetized, it was given the muscle relaxant, vecuronium bromide, intravenously at 0. During the recording session the end tidal CO2 pressure was monitored and maintained between 35 and 50 mmHg. The eyes were focused onto a tangent screen 57 cm away using contact lenses of appropriate size and power.

A map of the blood vessel pattern was reflected back on to the tangent screen from the tapetum to locate the optic disks, which were used to infer the locations of the area centralae. A survival recording session usually lasted hours, after which the brain opening was covered with tecoflex artificial dura for protection. A specially molded plastic cap of appropriate size was glued with dental cement over the craniotomy window, and the scalp was sutured closed.

First vecuronium bromide infusion and then propofol anesthesia was withdrawn and the animal was monitored until it was fully awake, at which point it was given treats and the analgesic buprenorphine 0. After a survival session an animal was allowed at least two weeks to recover before another survival session was performed. All pulvinar mapping was done on the left hemisphere. Some of these animals received tracer injections in the right pulvinar for a related study. Recording We recorded extracellular single and multi-unit activity using epoxylite-coated tungsten microelectrodes FHC Inc.

The signal was amplified and digitized with a Plexon multichannel acquisition processor Plexon Inc. The high impedance of these electrodes ensured that we could differentiate between background hash and neural spikes. The electrode was initially lowered At each location, we examined the visual responsiveness of cells using spots, bars and other light patterns projected on the tangent screen. At peripheral locations we used a hand held screen to roughly estimate the receptive field locations off-screen.

When we found any visual response with bright light spots, we used an ophthalmoscope to project confined light spots or light bars with clear borders and uniform luminance on the screen, to locate the receptive field.

Recorded units were classified as vague, moderate or brisk by their visual responses. A brisk unit showed large clear spikes and a clear response similar to the response of V1 cells, with either no adaptation or fast recovery. A moderate unit showed a clear receptive field, spikes clearly larger than background hash and consistent recovery from adaptation. A vague unit showed correlation between visual stimulation and activity but either was hard to localize, showed very slow recovery from fatigue, or had small spikes barely larger than background hash.

For most non-vague units we also tested the ocularity of their receptive field. We hand plotted the receptive field centers of vague units, the accurate receptive fields of the non-vague units, and separate receptive fields for the two eyes when they deviated.

Four to nine penetrations were made in each session. Perfusions were done within five weeks of the first recording sessions so lesions left in the early sessions remained visible. During the sectioning needle probe marks were left in the thalamus perpendicular to the cutting plane to facilitate reconstruction. Sections from the first three animals were stained for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase CO , acetylcholinesterase AChE and calbindin, in series, to reveal pulvinar subdivisions.

In later cases only some of the four stains were used to facilitate reconstruction. CO staining was used in all cases. We employed a CO staining protocol that used 0. This method is based on the one used by Boyd and Matsubara , and it allowed better differentiation, sharper contrast and faster reactions compared to the original method Wong-Riley, For immunostaining for calbindin see also Table 1 , sections were first incubated with 1: Marly, Switzerland, Code No.: The immunostaining was visualized with 0.

The primary antibody was polyclonal and was produced against recombinant rat calbindin Dk. In normal concentration, the antibody yields only a single band at 28kDa for primate brain tissue manufacturer product description: This distribution pattern was perfectly reflected in our stained sections see Fig 1D.

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The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Comp Neurol This article has been corrected. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

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