Background India's forests are home to hundreds of millions of people, including many Scheduled Tribes , who live in or near the forest areas of the country. Nearly million people live in and around forests in India, of which the estimated indigenous Adivasi or tribal population stands at about million.
Background India's forests are home to hundreds of millions of people, including many Scheduled Tribes , who live in or near the forest areas of the country.
Nearly million people live in and around forests in India, of which the estimated indigenous Adivasi or tribal population stands at about million. To put these numbers in perspective, if considered a nation by themselves, they would form the 13th largest country in the world, even though they cannot be depicted as representing any singular, monolithic culture.
Moreover, vast areas of land that may or may not be forests are classified as "forest" under India's forest laws, and those cultivating these lands are technically cultivating "forest land". Since time immemorial, the tribal communities of India have had an integral and close knit relationship with the forests and have been dependent on the forests for livelihoods and existence.
The relationship was mutually beneficial and not one sided. However, rights were rarely recognized by the authorities and in the absence of real ownership of the land, the already marginalized local dwellers suffered.
The former empowers the government to declare any area to be a reserved forest, protected forest or village forest. The latter allows any area to be constituted as a "protected area", namely a national park, wildlife sanctuary, tiger reserve or community conservation area.
Studies have shown that in many areas this process either did not take place at all or took place in a highly faulty manner. This "legal twilight zone" leads to harassment, evictions, extortion of money and sexual molestation of forest dwellers by forest officials, who wield absolute authority over forest dwellers' livelihoods and daily lives. Types of rights The rights which are included in section 3 1 of the Act are: Council or Autonomous Regional Council or which are accepted as rights of tribals under any traditional or customary law of the concerned tribes of any State; Right of access to biodiversity and community right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and cultural diversity; Any other traditional right customarily enjoyed by the forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes or other traditional forest dwellers, as the case may be, which are not mentioned in clauses-1 to 11, but excluding the traditional right of hunting or trapping extracting a part of the body of any species of wild animal These can be summarised as: Title rights - i.
This resolution is then screened and approved at the level of the sub-division or taluka and subsequently at the district level. The screening committees consist of three government officials Forest, Revenue and Tribal Welfare departments and three elected members of the local body at that level. These committees also hear appeals.
The first step is to show that relocation is scientifically necessary and no other alternative is available; this has to be done through a process of public consultation. The second step is that the local community must consent to the resettlement. Finally, the resettlement must provide not only compensation but a secure livelihood. The most common is that the purpose of the law is to distribute forest land to forest dwellers or tribals, often claimed to be at the rate of 4 hectares per family.
Some of this opposition has been motivated by those who see the law as a land distribution scheme that will lead to the handing over of forests to tribals and forest dwellers see Vanashakti, a group opposed to the Act, as an example. But the strongest opposition to the Act has come from wildlife conservationists who fear that the law will make it impossible to create "inviolate spaces", or areas free of human presence, for the purposes of wildlife conservation.
Interpretation regarding Deadline cut-off-date: Sai Sampath, Founder-President ECO FAWN Society had actively engaged in environment and wildlife conservation who also appeared before Hon'ble Parliamentary Committee suggested for incorporation of "Deadline cut-off-date" to complete whole process of identification, verification and recognition of Forest Rights to genuine tribals and other traditional forest dwellers in the country.
Supporters of the Act take the position that the Act is not a land distribution measure, and further that the Act is more transparent than existing law and so can help stop land grabbing.
This is said to be because it will provide a legal right for communities themselves to protect the forest, as thousands of villages are already doing in the face of official opposition. This is the first time any Indian legislation has been attacked through a television campaign. The group criticised the Forest Rights Act as having the potential to cause huge floods, droughts, and to increase global warming.
The Campaign for Survival and Dignity, a federation of tribal and forest dwellers' organisations from several States of India, wrote an Open Letter to Vanashakti , criticising them for "attacking the Forest Rights Act through distortions and untruths that do nothing to reinforce forest protection, and a great deal to undermine it. An exchange of correspondence followed, which can be found both at the Vanashakti website and at the website on the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Recognition of Forest Rights Act" put up by the Campaign .
Criticism by forest rights supporters While supporting the principles of the law, forest rights supporters are not entirely satisfied with the law as finally passed. The recommendations of a Joint Parliamentary Committee on the law were partly rejected, and supporters of forest rights have claimed that some of the rejected clauses were important. In particular, the final form of the law is said to make it easier to exclude some categories of both tribal and non-tribal forest dwellers, to have undermined the democratic nature of the processes in the Act and to have placed additional hindrances and bureaucratic restrictions on people's rights.
All of the key features of this legislation have been undermined by a combination of apathy and sabotage during the process of implementation. In the current situation the rights of the majority of tribals and other traditional forest dwellers are being denied and the purpose of the legislation is being defeated.
Unless immediate remedial measures are taken, instead of undoing the historical injustice to tribal and other traditional forest dwellers, the Act will have the opposite outcome of making them even more vulnerable to eviction and denial of their customary access to forests These can be obtained from the Ministry's website.
Book your North Myrtle Beach, SC vacation rentals online. Explore a large selection of vacation rentals, including Condos/Apartments, Houses & more: over . Read more...
Busse Woods is the second full-length album by the stoner metal band Acid King. The album has slightly different artwork and two extra songs, cover versions of "Motorhead" by Hawkwind, and "Not Fragile" by Bachman-Turner Overdrive. Read more...
Complete your The Reality Band and Show record collection. Discover The Reality Band and Show's full discography. Shop new and used Vinyl and CDs. Read more...
Even if you are an urban dweller who has never experienced anything but big city living, you can still enjoy the vicarious experience of living in a virtual Farm Town. The popular view regarding Israel and Edom is expressed when the story makes Jacob a tent-dweller, and Esau a hunter, a man of the field.
- A Perfect Circle are set to return in 2017, so here's a playlist of 10 essential tracks
- Watch the video for The Outsider from A Perfect Circle's Thirteenth Step for free, and see the artwork, lyrics and similar artists.. Посмотреть...
- Create your account
- 6 Nov Death Cab For Cutie are an indie rock/indie pop/alternative rock band .. saying they yug-business.ru, I guess they were before, but now they'yug-business.ru. Посмотреть...
- . Посмотреть...