He escapes to the mountains and forms a group of rebels who support the Mexican Revolution. The whole novel has various reading levels and the character names represent forces or ideals beyond the characters themselves.
He escapes to the mountains and forms a group of rebels who support the Mexican Revolution. The whole novel has various reading levels and the character names represent forces or ideals beyond the characters themselves. Some of them are prototypes of the kind of people that was dragged into the revolution, like Demetrio, whose name is associated with the goddess of farming and agriculture Demeter ; the dog, Palomo, killed at the beginning who symbolizes peace.
With a concise, unsympathetic tone, Azuela takes us along with this band of outcasts as they move along the hills of the country, seemingly struggling for a cause whose leader changes from day to night. The rebels, not very certain of what or whom they are fighting for, practice the abuse and injustice they used to suffer in the hands of the old leaders. He has forebodings of his destiny, and the last scene of the book leaves him firing his rifle with deathly accuracy, alone and extremely outnumbered by his enemies.
He is a tall and well-built man with a sanguine face and beardless chin. He wears a shirt and trouser of white cloth, broad Mexican hat, and leather sandals. He leads a group of men fighting against the federal forces of Victoriano Huerta. He is famous for his marksmanship and his ability to lead men in battle.
Many poor peasants he meets throughout his journey protest against the Federales because they burn their houses, take their wives, their stock, and their food.
His dog is killed in one of the most iconic and melodramatic scenes in the novel. It depicts a moment of helplessness, a recurring theme throughout the book. Macias and his band of men travel great lengths and loot and sack villages throughout their journey in order to stay alive. They rape many Mexican women and hang dozens of men. Macias also has a semi-sexual encounter with another man that changes the essence of his character throughout the rest of the novel.
At the beginning of the novel, he fights to change his country; at the end he does not know why he continues to fight, and compares his actions to that of a pebble he throws into a canyon. The newest member of Demetrio's band of rebels. He was conscripted to fight in the Federale Army, but deserts when he was offended. Different from the rest of the band, Cervantes is educated and well-mannered, as he is a medical student and journalist. Towards the end of the novel he flees the country to go to the United States.
His story is said to be similar to the author's. However, in many interviews Azuela has stated his voice is not represented by the life of Cervantes but rather Solis. She is a tough woman who represents a real class of women that took part in the conflict, the Soldaderas. She is a woman who challenges men, does not get scared when a man shoots closely at her, swears, shakes hands with virile strength, rides open legged, teases Demetrio, and fights with a revolver she keeps on her chest.
She is a teenager who is deceived by Luis Cervantes to join Demetrio's band. She is in love with the former and, although her kind and stoic nature represents the servile and subdued women before the revolution, she is a tragic character who ends fatally in conflict with La Pintada.
Her name means Attendand. The first edition of The Underdogs was published by Brentano's in , which was the largest bookstore in the US, with branches in four American cities as well as London and Paris. The original print run was 3,, and the book's preface was written by the influential American journalist Carleton Beals. Illustrations were drawn by Jose Clemente Orozco , one of the most famous muralists of the era. Most indignant is the un-credited role of Anita Brenner who had coined the term Mexican Renaissance in his book Idols behind altars and was a member since , as the similarities among her own book and the Underdogs, points out that she was the hub and intellectual author for the whole project to happen.
About the reviews, Timothy Murad wrote: Strictly speaking, and dependent on context, 'los de abajo' as 'those from below,' or 'those underneath. To a degree, when Azuela coined the phrase he intended the socio-cultural and political meanings the poor, the lower classes, the uneducated, the powerless, the downthroden that are inextricably linked to its use as the title of the novel.
James suggested in "Waldo Frank in his foreword to this story of love, lust and revenge south of the Rio Grande, calls Mariano azuela 'one of the most eminent novelists of contemporary Mexico.
Nor do his literary ectiviteis keep him from the pursuit of his profession or from working for social justice within a modest sphere. American readers may remember his 'The underdogs. Robe published by the University of California Press in also offered a new translation based on the original serial edition. A Norton Critical Edition. Segio Weisman did another one for Penguin Books in Still, the most current edition by Signet in , uses the original translation by Munguia -and Anita Brenner- as are most of the e-book versions for Kindle available.
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